What Is the Process Capability Ratio (Cp)?
Process capability analysis with the Cp ratio shows how well the process spread (expressed as six standard deviations) fits into the specification range. This measurement is determined by dividing the specification limit (voice of the customer) by the process spread (voice of the process).
To calculate Cp, subtract the lower specification limit from the upper specification limit, then divide by six standard deviations.
What Is the Process Performance Ratio (Cpk)?
The Cpk ratio shows the relationship of the process spread to the specification limits while taking into account the centering of the process compared to the specification limits. Cpk represents the lowest value of the capability against the upper or lower specification, showing where, within the specification limits, the process is producing.
To calculate Cpk, compare the average of the data to both the upper and lower specification limit. An off-centered process will have a greater risk of fallout to the specification limit closest to the process mean. The reported Cpk will be the one that measures the highest risk.