Quality Management System Glossary:
L, M, N, O
Also known as a Batch
- A defined quantity of product accumulated under conditions considered uniform for sampling purposes.
- Items constituting a defined quantity of uniform product for purposes of proceeding collectively through a process.
The value of percentage defective or defects per hundred units in a lot.
Also referred to as N
The number of units in a lot.
Expressed in percentage defective, the poorest quality in an individual lot that should be accepted.
LTPD is used as a basis for some inspection systems and is commonly associated with a small consumer risk.
Control limit for points below the central line in a Control Chart
The arithmetic average of a discrete set of values in a data set.
The criteria, metric, or means to which a comparison is made with output.
The act or process of determining a value. An approximation or estimate of the value of the specific quantity subject to measurement, which is complete only when accompanied by a quantitative statement of its uncertainty.
All operations, procedures, devices, and other equipment, personnel and environment used to assign a value to the characteristic being measured.
In metrology, a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.
The center value of a set of data in which all the data are arranged in sequence.
The value occurring most frequently in a data set.
A measure used to help calculate the variance of a data population; the distance or difference between consecutive points. The moving range chart is typically used with an Individual X (IX) chart
for single measurements.
A measure used to calculate variation using the standard deviation between two consecutive points from an IX control chart. The calculations are then plotted and analyzed on a time-ordered Moving-s control chart.
A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the levels of two or more variables or characteristics.
The number of units in a sample.
The number of units in a population.
A unit with one or more nonconformities or defects. Also called a reject.
A specified requirement that is not fulfilled. Also see Blemish
, and Imperfection
Testing and evaluation methods that do not damage or destroy the test specimen.
All tests involving ranked data (data that can be put in order). Nonparametric tests are often used in place of their parametric counterparts when certain assumptions about the underlying population are questionable.
The charting of a data set in which most of the data points are concentrated around the average (mean
), thus forming a bell-shaped curve.
A control chart
based on counting the number of defective units in each constant size subgroup. The np-chart is based on the binomial distribution
Also known as Operating Curve
A graph to determine the probability of accepting lots as a function of the lots’ or processes’ quality level when using various sampling plans. There are three types: type A curves, which give the probability of acceptance for an individual lot coming from finite production (will not continue in the future); type B curves, which give the probability of acceptance for lots coming from a continuous process; and type C curves, which (for a continuous sampling plan) give the long-run percentage of product accepted during the sampling phase.
Unusually large or small observations relative to the rest of the data.
A process in which the statistical measure being evaluated is not in a state of statistical control. In other words, the variations among the observed sampling results cannot be attributed to a constant system of chance causes. Also see In-Control Process
A term that indicates a unit does not meet a given requirement or specification.
Used to measure manufacturing productivity; identifies the percentage of manufacturing time that is truly productive. An OEE score of 100% means you are manufacturing only Good Parts, as fast as possible, with no Stop Time. In the language of OEE that means 100% Quality (only Good Parts), 100% Performance (as fast as possible), and 100% Availability (no Stop Time).
An element often introduced into a process by a well-meaning operator or controller who considers any appreciable deviation from the target value as a special cause. In this case, the operator is incorrectly viewing common-cause variation as a fault in the process. Over control of a process can actually increase the variability of the process and is viewed as a form of tampering